The Treaty of Uppsala was an official declaration of annexation signed on July 9, 1820 between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Sweden . As a result of the treaty, the Kingdom of Sweden including its overseas territories formally ceded into the Russian Empire, being governed as the Grand Duchy of Finland and Sweden.
The main participants in the treaty were Alexander I, the emperor of Russia; Celeste I, the then-queen of Sweden; and Simón Bolivar, the leader of Gran Colombia who acted as a mediator.
On July 9, 1820, Emperor Alexander I of Russia arrived in the Swedish city of Uppsala, summoned there by Queen Celeste I of Sweden. The emperor and his diplomats met with the queen to discuss the possibilities of Sweden merging into the Russian Empire. Simón Bolivar, the famed liberator and president of Gran Colombia, was in Stockholm at the time, discussing diplomacy with Swedish officials. He was thus invited by the Swedish queen to attend the meeting with the Russian emperor in Uppsala, to sit in and mediate the conference.
Later that afternoon, the Treaty of Uppsala was officially agreed upon by the monarchs, and ratified by the Swedish and Russian parliaments.
As a result of the treaty, the following lands officially cede to the Russian Empire:
- Swedish Pomerania
These three provinces, along with the existing Grand Duchy of Finland (presently in the Russian Empire) are to be amassed into the single Grand Duchy of Finland and Sweden. The former Swedish queen, Celeste I, has been appointed by Alexander I as the first Grand Duchess of Finland and Sweden.
The official Treaty of Uppsala was written first in Swedish and Russian before being translated into French and English. Below is the English translation.
"On the twenty-seventh of June, Eighteen Hundred and Twenty in the Year of Our Lord [Old Style; 9 July 1820 New Style] the Most Protestant Kingdom of Sweden, under the divine leadership of Her Majesty Celeste I, by the Grace of God, thus and formally yields all lands comprising the aforementioned Kingdom, including, but not limited to, the royal city of Stockholm, the holy isle of Gottland, the western isle of Iceland, the provinces of Sweden herself, and the Swedish Pomeranian crownlands, to the glorious Holy Empire of Muscovy and All the Russias, commanded by His Majesty Alexander I, by the Grace of God. All territories of or belonging to the aforementioned Kingdom of Sweden will thus merge with the existing Grand Duchy of Finland, ergo establishing the divine Grand Duchy of Finland and Sweden, which shall, by the Russian Emperor's word, be presided over by the Swedish queen, now Grand Duchess Celeste I, by the Grace of God."
- Alexander I of Russia
- Celeste I of Sweden
- Simón Bolivar of Gran Colombia (mediator)